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||Author or Originator
||Description of Event
||In region of Sheikh Hamad on
the Khabor River Assyrian language and script couched in Assyrian legal formulae is
discovered (Brinkman 1997).
||King Cyrus II or the Great,
upon entering babylon, returned the divine and cult images to Assyria
||According to Hermann
Bengtson, the city of Assur had not been abandoned; it was no longer a
capital, but excavations have revealed evidence of human habitation there
down to the Parthian conquest. There are many Assyrians dwelling throughout
Mesopotamia, as we can tell by theophoric personal names, compounded with the
name of their national god, Asshur (Bengtson 1968)
uncovered from Ashur, Hatra, and other northern Mesopotamian regions show the use of many
typical Assyrian names such as Ashur, Assarhaddon, and Ashur god (Beyer 1998).
||Assyrian Akkadian script
discovered (Bottero 1995).
||Crone and Cook,
citing W. Cureton
|Pointing to the identity of
province of Adiabene: "the disciples of Addai returned to their own
||country of the Assyrians in
the time of Narsai the king of the Assyrians (Crone and Cook 1977).
||Emperor Trajan occupies
Mesopotamia and later Adiabene, makes it part of the Roma Empire, and calls
the new Roman province Assyria (O'Leary 1949).
||Tatian, one of
||In his "Address to the
Greeks", Tatian referred to himself as an Assyrian (Moffett 1998)
|Lucian of Samosata, one of the early Christian writers
||Lucian stated that he was an
Assyrios (Assyrian) (Millar 2001)
||Prof. M.J. Geller
||Akkadian language survived
throughout the Parthian period, at least until the mid-third century (Geller 2000).
||Edward Gibbon, citing Ammianus Marcellinus, a soldier and historian in Emperor Julian's Army
||The primitive Assyria, which
comprehended Ninus [Nineveh] and Arbela [Arbil], had assumed the more recent and
peculiar appellation of Adiabene (Gibbon 1995, 2000).
|A.D. 306 373
||St. Ephrem (Aprim)
||St. Ephrem (Aprim) glorified
Assyria and Assyrians in his poetry (Mcvey 1989).
||King Shapur II
||According to Aboona, there
existed an Assyrian prince by the name of Sannacherib in the fourth century A.D.: "as
for the big monastery, it was built after the death of Mar Behnam by his father Sannacherib, a
prince apointed by the Persian King Shapur" (Aboona 1996).
||King Shapur II
||King Shapur II was very
impressed with the 25-year-old pagan Qardakh that he made him the Prince of Atour (Assyria)
or governor over the region between River Tormara and the city of Nisibin (Paul Bejan
||King Khosroes I
||King Khosroes, the Just,
established four provinces, which he called Assyria, Media, Persia and Bactriana (Gibbon 1995).
||Youhanna al-Amidi,Bishop of Ephesus
||In his writings, Youhanna
al-Amidi wrote that Emperor Anastasius built a city, which he called Dara and delivered it
to the Assyrians.
||In the synod of Mar Eshuyow
held in 585, the name of Mar Awa Qashisha is present representing Mar Khnana
Metropolitan of Atouraye (Assyrians).
||According to Chronicles of Syria and Hassan Salame-Sarkis, a bema (plaque) dating back to the seventh century that was discovered recently in Syria includes the name of a certain Otal Bar Sargon (Salame-Sarkis 1989).
||According to Bat Ya'or, a
document by the Armenian Sepeos records that the army of the Arabs left Assyria via route
of southwest Lake Van and controlled the region west to the Lake and south of Mount
Ararat (Ye'or 1996).
||Letters of Patriarch
|In a letter to Mar Hurmiz of
Beth Lapat, "This faith is how their faith was, as was mine, and continues to be as strong as
ever regardless whether or not it appeared so to others. This faith best describes those of
the center of Athur and the surrounding nearby peoples... (Philip Scott Moncrieff 1904)
Ananias of Shirak
|Citing Hewsen, Robinson Chase
F. shows that the thirty-sixth country of Asia was called Assyria, i.e., Mosul, which
has mountains, rivers, and the city of Nineveh (Robinson 2000).
||Sargon Bin Mansour
||According to Audiryanos
Shakour, a certain Sargon Bin Mansour worked as the tax
collector for the Umayyad
Dynasty treasury in Damascus (Shakour 1984).
|According to the Armenian
Chronology, Caliph 'Abd Al-Malik laid waste to Armenia and sent many Armenians to
Assyria (Ye'or 1996).
|The Chronography of Bar
Hebraeus mentions that during the conquests of Caliph Marwan, the Caliph came down to
Harran and then towards Athor (Assyria) (Budge 1976).
||Thomas of Marga
(Bishop Toma BarYacoub)
|Thomas of Marga (born in the
ninth century explains how Metropolitan Mar Aha was
consecrated as the
"Metropolitan of the countries of Athor and Adiabene" (Budge 1893).
|According to Bat Ye'or,
Caliph al-Mutawakkil entrusted troops to a certain Yusuf, whose father Abuseth had died in
the lands of Assyria (Ye'or 1996).
|According to Bayard Dodge, in
his index titled Fihrist al-Nadim, Abu al-Faraj Muhammad Ibn Ishaq al-Nadim, who
described many people, gives a definition of the word Ashuriyun (Arabic for Assyrians) as
such: Their master and chief is named Ibn Siqtiri Ibn Ashuri. They collect revenues and profits.
In some things they agree with the Jews and about other things they disagree with
them. They appear to be a sect of Jesus (Dodge 1970).
||Mari Ibn Suleman
||According to William Young,
in the Book of Tower by Mari Ibn Suleman and his historian successors, Amr Matta and
Saliba Bar Yuhanna (c. 1350) a list of metropolitan provinces are listed and the second
province is Mosul and Assyria (Young 1974).
||Michael the Great
||According to Bat Ye'or, the
records of Michael the Great indicate that August 1169 witnessed the death of the
prince of Mosul and of all Assyria, Qutb ad-Din (Ye'or 1996).
|| Michael the Great
||According to Bat Ye'or, the
records of Michael the Great indicate that 1173 was a year of distress for the Christians
of Assyria and Mesopotamia (Ye'or 1996).
Jonah of Tudela, a
|According to H.W.F. Saggs,
Rabbi Benjamin describes Mosul as such: "It is Ashur the Great, and about seven
thousands Jews live there…It sits on the Tigris, between it and Nineveh is a
connecting bridge. Nineveh is in ruins but within its ruins there are
villages and communities... (Saggs
||Poet Khamis Bar Qardakhi was
known Khamis Bar Qardakhi Atouraya (the Assyrian) (Khoshaba 2002).
(Gregorius Abul- Faraj)
|According to E.A. Wallis
Budge, the Chronography of Bar Hebraeus mentions that during the reign of Ghoyuk of the
Mongols, the Khan handed Athor (Assyria) to a certain chief named Ailshikatai (Budge
||Poet Gewargis of Arbil
||Poet Gewargis of Arbil, who
died in 1300, repeatedly mentions Assyrians and their ancient city of Nineveh in his poems
and he describes many clergymen as being the Assyrian, such as Mar Mari the Assyrian
and Mar Odisho the Assyrian.
|According to H.W.F. Saggs,
Arab geographer Abu'l Fida describes Mosul as such: "opposite, on the east
bank, are the ruins of Nineveh. South of Mosul. The Lesser Zab joins the Tigris near the
ruins of the town of Ashur." (Saggs 1985).
Sharaf Khan al Bidlissi
|According to Bidlissi's book
Sharafnameh, during the time of Hassan Beg Aq-Qwinlo (15th century) there were
Christians in Zur district (Hakkari) known as “Asuri”.
|| Vatican Archives
||According to a declassified
letter dated 1587 published by David Wilmshurst, the Assyrian nation is under four
patriarchs, three of them were confirmed by the Vatican, however, the fourth was not (Wilmshurst
||Vardapet Hovnan, head of the
St. John the baptish Monastery in Mush
||According to George
Bournoutian, in a letter from Vardapet Hovnan to Joseph Emin, who had joined
the British and Prussian armies against France, Hovnan writes: "As for
the fighting men, you shall have 40,000 to meet you at the end of the six
days journey; the Assyrians and Yezidy Curds are likewise ready to join us
||Colonel Stepan D. Burnashev,
in charge of the Russian troops in Tiflis
||According to George
Bournoutian, in a letter from Colonel Stepan D. Burnashev dated May 26 to
General Paul S. Potemkin, commander of the Russian forces, Burnashev mentions
a certain Ilia, the son of the former leader of the Assyrian people
||Prof. L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza
||Genetic Study: The Assyrians
are a fairly homogenous group of people, believed to originate from the land
of old Assyria in northern Iraq.
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Bedjan, Paul. Khayyeh d’ Qadeesheh (Life of Saints). Paris, 1912.
Bengtson, Hermann, ed. The Greeks and the Persians: From the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries. John Conway, trans. New York: Delacorte Press, 1968.
Beyer, Klaus. Die aramäischen Inschriften aus Assur, Hatra und dem übrigen Ostmesopotamien (datiert 44 v. Chr. bis 238 n. Chr.). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998.
Bottéro, Jean. Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods. Z. Bahrani and M. Van De Mieroop, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia (1626–1796): A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, Inc., 2001.
Brinkman, J.A. “Assyrians After the Empire.” Lecture presented at the Mesopotamian Museum: Chicago, January 1999.
Budge, E. A. Wallis. trans. The Book of Governors: The Historia Monastica of Thomas Bishop of Marga A.D. 840. vol. 2. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd., 1893.
Budge, E. A. trans., 1932. The Chronography of Gregory Abul-Faraj 1225–1286. vol. 1. Reprint, Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1976.
Crone, Patricia & Michael Cook. Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Dodge, Bayard. The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of the Muslim Culture. vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.
Geller, M. J. Paper titled “The Survival of Babylonian Wissenschaft in Later Tradition.” In The Heirs of Assyria. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. Sanna Aro and R. M. Whiting, ed. Helsinki, 2000.
Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. David Womersley, ed. Penguin Books, 2000.
Khoshaba, Shlimon Esho. Khamis Bar Qardakhi (In Syriac). Iraq: Nisibin Press, 2002.
Mcvey, Kathleen E. Ephrem the Syrian. New York: Paulist Press, 1989.
Millar, Fergus. The Roman Near East: 31 B.C.–A.D. 337. 4th printing. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
Moffett, Samuel Hugh. A History of Christianity in Asia, Vol. I: Beginnings to 1500. New York: Orbis Books, 1998.
Moncrieff, Philip Scott. The Book of Consolations, or the Pastoral Epistales of Mar Ishu‛yab of Kuphlana in Adiabene, part I. London, 1904.
Robinson, Chase F. Empire and Elites After the Muslim Conquest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Ye‛or, Bat. The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude. London: Associated University Presses, 1996.
Young, William G. Patriarch, Shah and Caliph. Pakistan, 1974.